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Managing diabet with diet&exercises

Diabetes Food Pyramid
 

You are probably familiar with the Food Guide Pyramid that was created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to help people choose a nutritious mix of foods every day. But you should also know about the Diabetes Food Pyramid, which was designed by the American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association.

The Diabetes Food Pyramid differs from the standard Food Guide Pyramid in the way that it groups different foods together. Because blood glucose is of primary concern to people with diabetes, the Diabetes Food Pyramid focuses on the way in which certain foods affect blood glucose levels. For example, in the standard pyramid, beans and legumes are grouped with meats, due to their protein content. In the diabetes pyramid, however, beans are grouped with starches, because they affect blood glucose in the same way that starchy foods do.
Under this plan, 60 to 70 percent of your total daily calories should come from grains, beans, and starchy vegetables, with the rest being meat, cheese, fish and other proteins. Fats, oils, and sweets should be used sparingly. The Diabetes Food Pyramid suggests the following daily servings of food for people with diabetes:
 
Daily Servings Per Food Group
 
Suggested Serving Size
 
3-4 servings of fruit
 
1 small fresh fruit, ½ cup canned or dry fruit, ½ cup cup fruit juice
 
3-5 servings of vegetables
 
1 cup raw vegetables, ½ cup cooked vegetables, ½ cup tomato or vegetable juice
 
 
6 or more servings of grains, beans, and starchy vegetables
 
1 slice bread, ½ small bagel or English muffin, 1 6-inch tortilla, ½ cup cooked cereal or pasta
 
 
2-3 servings of milk and yogurt
 
1 cup milk or yogurt
 
 
2-3 servings of meat, cheese, fish, and other proteins
 
2-3 oz. Cooked lean meat, fish or poultry, 2-3 oz. cheese, 1 egg
 
 
Sparing use of fats, oils, and sweets
 
A serving of fats and oils can be 1 Tsp. Butter, margarine, oil or mayonnaise. A serving of sweets can be ½ cup ice cream or 2 small cookies.
 
 
Many people with diabetes manage their meals and snacks using a Food Exchange System. Exchange lists are groups of foods that contain a similar mix of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and calories.
There are six exchange groups:
  • Starches and breads
  • Meats and meat substitutes
  • Vegetables
  • Fruits
  • Milk
  • Fats
Within any group, you can exchange one food serving for another. For example, in the Meats group, some sample foods that equal one lean meat exchange are:
  • 1 oz. of white meat chicken or turkey with no skin
  • ¼ cup low-fat or nonfat cottage cheese
  • 1 oz. of lean beef
Your daily meal plan should contain foods from all six Food Exchange lists in order to assure complete and balanced nutrition.
The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association have published newly revised, expanded, and updated Exchange Lists for Meal Planning. While they are designed primarily for people with diabetes and others who must follow special diets, the Exchange Lists are based on principles of good nutrition that apply to everyone. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of reading food labels, with valuable label reading tips for all. The latest lists contain useful new exchange information to reflect the interest in reduced fat food products, vegetarian food products, and fast foods.
 
Carbohydrate Counting
Carb (carbohydrate) Counting is a meal planning method for people with diabetes. You can enjoy a great variety of foods once you understand how to include carb-containing foods in your diet.

Of all the nutrients you eat, carbs have the greatest effect on your blood glucose. In fact, 90 to 100 percent of the carbs you eat appear in your bloodstream as blood glucose within a few hours after you have eaten.

Carbs are found in the following foods:
  • Fruit, fruit juices (or any food that contains fruit or fruit juices)
  • Milk, ice cream, yogurt (or any food that contains milk)
  • Breads, cereals, crackers, grains, pasta, rice
  • Starchy vegetables (such as corn, potatoes, peas or beans)
  • Sweets (such as cake, candy, cookies, pie)
  • Sugary foods (such as regular soda, fruit drinks, sherbet)
  • Beer, wine and some mixed drinks

Many studies have shown that all types of carb foods affect blood glucose in the same way. It is the amount of carb you eat during a meal or snack that is important, not the type of carb.1


For example: If you have one cup of vanilla ice cream that has 30 grams of carbs and a sandwich with 30 grams of carbs, both will affect blood glucose levels in the same way.


How to Count Carbs
Carbs can be counted by either carb servings / choices or by carb grams. A gram (g) is a unit of measure used for foods. One carb serving/choice equals roughly 15 grams of carb. Either method can be used, but however you count carbs, you will also need to recognize portion sizes.
Using Servings or Choices
In the ADA Exchange Lists for Meal Planning, the carb-containing food groups include Bread/Starch, Fruit, Milk and Other Carbs. The foods in these groups contain about 15 grams of carb per serving or choice. The following servings are each one carb choice equaling 15 grams of carb, so each of these choices will affect your blood glucose level the same:
  • 1/2 cup orange juice from the Fruit group
  • 3/4 cup of cereal from the Bread/Starch group
  • 1 cup homemade coleslaw from the Vegetable group.
Using Grams
Instead of counting servings, you can add up the grams of carb in a meal or snack. These are commonly found on food labels. Your meal plan may suggest specific amounts of carb grams at each meal or snack. You will need to become familiar with portion sizes and the amounts of carb they contain. Serving sizes can be found on food labels.
 
Example: 1/2 cup of cooked vegetables is considered one serving. However, some vegetables are low in carbohydrate. For example, if you eat 1 cup of cooked spinach (2 servings), you have eaten only 20 grams of carb.
If your meal plan calls for you to eat fixed amounts of carb at meals and snacks, your carb choices can change from day to day as long as the totals for your meals and snacks are about the same.
For example, if you need to eat around 75 grams of carb for breakfast, here are two breakfasts that are about equal in carb grams:
Breakfast 1:
2 slices of whole wheat toast
24 g
2 Tbsp grape jam
26 g
1 cup orange juice
25 g
Black coffee with sugar substitute
0 g
 
Total:
75 g
 
Breakfast 2:
1 1/3 cup corn flakes, with
25 g
1 cup skim milk
12 g
1 medium banana
27 g
1/2 cup orange juice
12 g
 
Total:
76 g
 
Closing Tips
Keep in mind that what you consider a portion may actually count as more than one carb serving. For example: one carb serving of pasta is 1/3 cup (15 g carb); if you eat 1 cup of pasta, your portion is actually 3 carb servings (45g carb).
Be aware that "sugar-free" foods may still contain a large amount of carbs. For example: sugar-free apple pie will contain carbs from the apples and the crust. Sugar-free ice cream will have carbs from milk.
Foods to Reduce in Your Diet
 
Salt
People with diabetes are at greater risk of high blood pressure, so keep an eye on your salt (sodium) intake.
Too much salt can contribute to high blood pressure, which may damage your blood vessels and heart.
Salt is hidden in many fast foods, cheeses, salad dressings, soy sauce, and canned soups. Read the food label if you're not sure of a product's sodium content.
 
To reduce your salt intake:
  • Do not add salt to your food after it is cooked. It is a good idea to remove the salt shaker from your table.
  • Use spices instead of salt when cooking meats and vegetables.
  • Lemon juice in small amounts adds flavor to certain dishes.
  • Switch to salt-free salad dressing.
  • Try baked or low-salt potato chips and corn chips.
  • Use a cookbook that has hints and recipes for cutting back on salt.
  • Read the nutrition facts on package labels for the number of sodium grams.

Sugar
Many people still believe that a "diabetes diet" means avoiding sugar. This is not the case. Within the context of healthy eating, a person with diabetes can usually eat just about anything a person without diabetes eats. Talk with your dietician or diabetes educator about eating foods with sugar as part of a balanced meal plan.
Research has shown that, gram for gram, sugar does not raise blood glucose any more quickly than do other carbohydrates such as potatoes, rice, or pasta. This is true whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
However, most foods containing sugar also contain larger amounts of carbohydrate than those without sugar. They also usually contain more fat. Although fat will have less impact on your blood sugar, it can contribute to weight gain. Your dietician or diabetes educator can work with you to develop a meal plan that contains the right amount of sugar for your particular needs.
To keep sugar intake under control:
  • Have a smaller portion of your favorite treat.
  • Read the nutrition facts on package labels for the number of sugar and carbohydrate grams.
  • Skip the table sugar bowl and try a sugar substitute.

Alcohol
You may generally drink alcoholic beverages in moderation if your diabetes is under control. If you have any questions about alcohol consumption, please contact your doctor. Alcohol can make your blood sugar levels fall too low and put you at risk of hypoglycemia, so people with diabetes are advised to drink alcohol with a meal or snack and not by itself.
Alcoholic beverages and drink mixers contain sugar and carbohydrates, so they must be figured into your overall meal plan. If weight is a problem for you, limit how much beer, wine, or liquor you drink. Your body will burn the alcohol as a source of fuel instead of burning fat.
Do not use alcohol if you have a history of alcohol abuse or if you are pregnant.
  

Diabetes Food Pyramid
 

You are probably familiar with the Food Guide Pyramid that was created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to help people choose a nutritious mix of foods every day. But you should also know about the Diabetes Food Pyramid, which was designed by the American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association.

The Diabetes Food Pyramid differs from the standard Food Guide Pyramid in the way that it groups different foods together. Because blood glucose is of primary concern to people with diabetes, the Diabetes Food Pyramid focuses on the way in which certain foods affect blood glucose levels. For example, in the standard pyramid, beans and legumes are grouped with meats, due to their protein content. In the diabetes pyramid, however, beans are grouped with starches, because they affect blood glucose in the same way that starchy foods do.
Under this plan, 60 to 70 percent of your total daily calories should come from grains, beans, and starchy vegetables, with the rest being meat, cheese, fish and other proteins. Fats, oils, and sweets should be used sparingly. The Diabetes Food Pyramid suggests the following daily servings of food for people with diabetes:
 
Daily Servings Per Food Group
 
Suggested Serving Size
 
3-4 servings of fruit
 
1 small fresh fruit, ½ cup canned or dry fruit, ½ cup cup fruit juice
 
3-5 servings of vegetables
 
1 cup raw vegetables, ½ cup cooked vegetables, ½ cup tomato or vegetable juice
 
 
6 or more servings of grains, beans, and starchy vegetables
 
1 slice bread, ½ small bagel or English muffin, 1 6-inch tortilla, ½ cup cooked cereal or pasta
 
 
2-3 servings of milk and yogurt
 
1 cup milk or yogurt
 
 
2-3 servings of meat, cheese, fish, and other proteins
 
2-3 oz. Cooked lean meat, fish or poultry, 2-3 oz. cheese, 1 egg
 
 
Sparing use of fats, oils, and sweets
 
A serving of fats and oils can be 1 Tsp. Butter, margarine, oil or mayonnaise. A serving of sweets can be ½ cup ice cream or 2 small cookies.
 
 
Many people with diabetes manage their meals and snacks using a Food Exchange System. Exchange lists are groups of foods that contain a similar mix of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and calories.
There are six exchange groups:
  • Starches and breads
  • Meats and meat substitutes
  • Vegetables
  • Fruits
  • Milk
  • Fats
Within any group, you can exchange one food serving for another. For example, in the Meats group, some sample foods that equal one lean meat exchange are:
  • 1 oz. of white meat chicken or turkey with no skin
  • ¼ cup low-fat or nonfat cottage cheese
  • 1 oz. of lean beef
Your daily meal plan should contain foods from all six Food Exchange lists in order to assure complete and balanced nutrition.
The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association have published newly revised, expanded, and updated Exchange Lists for Meal Planning. While they are designed primarily for people with diabetes and others who must follow special diets, the Exchange Lists are based on principles of good nutrition that apply to everyone. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of reading food labels, with valuable label reading tips for all. The latest lists contain useful new exchange information to reflect the interest in reduced fat food products, vegetarian food products, and fast foods.
 
Carbohydrate Counting
Carb (carbohydrate) Counting is a meal planning method for people with diabetes. You can enjoy a great variety of foods once you understand how to include carb-containing foods in your diet.

Of all the nutrients you eat, carbs have the greatest effect on your blood glucose. In fact, 90 to 100 percent of the carbs you eat appear in your bloodstream as blood glucose within a few hours after you have eaten.

Carbs are found in the following foods:
  • Fruit, fruit juices (or any food that contains fruit or fruit juices)
  • Milk, ice cream, yogurt (or any food that contains milk)
  • Breads, cereals, crackers, grains, pasta, rice
  • Starchy vegetables (such as corn, potatoes, peas or beans)
  • Sweets (such as cake, candy, cookies, pie)
  • Sugary foods (such as regular soda, fruit drinks, sherbet)
  • Beer, wine and some mixed drinks

Many studies have shown that all types of carb foods affect blood glucose in the same way. It is the amount of carb you eat during a meal or snack that is important, not the type of carb.1


For example: If you have one cup of vanilla ice cream that has 30 grams of carbs and a sandwich with 30 grams of carbs, both will affect blood glucose levels in the same way.


How to Count Carbs
Carbs can be counted by either carb servings / choices or by carb grams. A gram (g) is a unit of measure used for foods. One carb serving/choice equals roughly 15 grams of carb. Either method can be used, but however you count carbs, you will also need to recognize portion sizes.
Using Servings or Choices
In the ADA Exchange Lists for Meal Planning, the carb-containing food groups include Bread/Starch, Fruit, Milk and Other Carbs. The foods in these groups contain about 15 grams of carb per serving or choice. The following servings are each one carb choice equaling 15 grams of carb, so each of these choices will affect your blood glucose level the same:
  • 1/2 cup orange juice from the Fruit group
  • 3/4 cup of cereal from the Bread/Starch group
  • 1 cup homemade coleslaw from the Vegetable group.
Using Grams
Instead of counting servings, you can add up the grams of carb in a meal or snack. These are commonly found on food labels. Your meal plan may suggest specific amounts of carb grams at each meal or snack. You will need to become familiar with portion sizes and the amounts of carb they contain. Serving sizes can be found on food labels.
 
Example: 1/2 cup of cooked vegetables is considered one serving. However, some vegetables are low in carbohydrate. For example, if you eat 1 cup of cooked spinach (2 servings), you have eaten only 20 grams of carb.
If your meal plan calls for you to eat fixed amounts of carb at meals and snacks, your carb choices can change from day to day as long as the totals for your meals and snacks are about the same.
For example, if you need to eat around 75 grams of carb for breakfast, here are two breakfasts that are about equal in carb grams:
Breakfast 1:
2 slices of whole wheat toast
24 g
2 Tbsp grape jam
26 g
1 cup orange juice
25 g
Black coffee with sugar substitute
0 g
 
Total:
75 g
 
Breakfast 2:
1 1/3 cup corn flakes, with
25 g
1 cup skim milk
12 g
1 medium banana
27 g
1/2 cup orange juice
12 g
 
Total:
76 g
 
Closing Tips
Keep in mind that what you consider a portion may actually count as more than one carb serving. For example: one carb serving of pasta is 1/3 cup (15 g carb); if you eat 1 cup of pasta, your portion is actually 3 carb servings (45g carb).
Be aware that "sugar-free" foods may still contain a large amount of carbs. For example: sugar-free apple pie will contain carbs from the apples and the crust. Sugar-free ice cream will have carbs from milk.
Foods to Reduce in Your Diet
 
Salt
People with diabetes are at greater risk of high blood pressure, so keep an eye on your salt (sodium) intake.
Too much salt can contribute to high blood pressure, which may damage your blood vessels and heart.
Salt is hidden in many fast foods, cheeses, salad dressings, soy sauce, and canned soups. Read the food label if you're not sure of a product's sodium content.
 
To reduce your salt intake:
  • Do not add salt to your food after it is cooked. It is a good idea to remove the salt shaker from your table.
  • Use spices instead of salt when cooking meats and vegetables.
  • Lemon juice in small amounts adds flavor to certain dishes.
  • Switch to salt-free salad dressing.
  • Try baked or low-salt potato chips and corn chips.
  • Use a cookbook that has hints and recipes for cutting back on salt.
  • Read the nutrition facts on package labels for the number of sodium grams.

Sugar
Many people still believe that a "diabetes diet" means avoiding sugar. This is not the case. Within the context of healthy eating, a person with diabetes can usually eat just about anything a person without diabetes eats. Talk with your dietician or diabetes educator about eating foods with sugar as part of a balanced meal plan.
Research has shown that, gram for gram, sugar does not raise blood glucose any more quickly than do other carbohydrates such as potatoes, rice, or pasta. This is true whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
However, most foods containing sugar also contain larger amounts of carbohydrate than those without sugar. They also usually contain more fat. Although fat will have less impact on your blood sugar, it can contribute to weight gain. Your dietician or diabetes educator can work with you to develop a meal plan that contains the right amount of sugar for your particular needs.
To keep sugar intake under control:
  • Have a smaller portion of your favorite treat.
  • Read the nutrition facts on package labels for the number of sugar and carbohydrate grams.
  • Skip the table sugar bowl and try a sugar substitute.

Alcohol
You may generally drink alcoholic beverages in moderation if your diabetes is under control. If you have any questions about alcohol consumption, please contact your doctor. Alcohol can make your blood sugar levels fall too low and put you at risk of hypoglycemia, so people with diabetes are advised to drink alcohol with a meal or snack and not by itself.
Alcoholic beverages and drink mixers contain sugar and carbohydrates, so they must be figured into your overall meal plan. If weight is a problem for you, limit how much beer, wine, or liquor you drink. Your body will burn the alcohol as a source of fuel instead of burning fat.
Do not use alcohol if you have a history of alcohol abuse or if you are pregnant.
  


 

 



 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

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